Torino

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Torino.
Flag of Turin.svg
Torino.
Torino.

Torino (Yi-thai-li-ngî: Torino) , he vi-yî Yi-thai-li pet-phu ke chhùng-yeu sàng-sṳ, PiemonteTorino-sén ke Sú-fú. Kì chhô-lo̍k chhai Po Hò ke chó ngan, Alpes sân fàn-tîn chhai sàng-sṳ ke sî-pet. Torino chûng-sîm khî yû mien-chit 130.17km², ngìn-khiéu 911,534[1], he Yi-thai-li ngìn-khiéu thi-si tô ke sàng-sṳ; Torino sàng-sṳ khî yû mien-chit 1,126.6 km², ngìn-khiéu 1,745,221[2]; Torino tû-sṳ khiên yû mien-chit 1,977 km², ngìn-khiéu 2,200,000[3] (tsam Yi-thai-li chúng ngìn-khiéu ke 3.4%[4]).

Torino he yit Koet-chi fa ke Êu-chû sàng-sṳ, [5][6] Torino yû sṳ̀ pûn chhṳ̂n-vì " Yi-thai-li Chhṳ-yù ke yèu làm ", [7], " Alpes chṳ̂ tû ", "Savoia chṳ̂ tû ". Kì yúng-yû chung-tô ke vùn-fa sat-sṳ̂ fò khì-thâ miàng-sṳn. Torino yîn-vì kì ke Baroque, Rococosîn Kú-tién chú-ngi fap sṳt kien-chuk yì kí sṳ vùn-miàng. Kì ke hó-tô kóng-chhòng, sàng páu, thìn yèn fò kiûng thien (yì kui-fu-kiûng), tû-he yù Sicilia kien-chuk sṳ̂ Filippo Juvarra kien-chho ke, kì chhai sat-kie sṳ̀ chia kam liáu Fap-koet Kîn-tién kien-chuk Versailles Kiûng. [8] liá-têu fap sṳt kien-chuk ke tién fam pâu-koat: vòng kiûng, Stupinigi KiûngSuperga thai-kau-thòng. Hí-tô Yi-thai-li kô-tén kau-yuk kî-kèu vi-yî chhṳ́ thi, yì Torino Thai-ho̍k, Torino Lî-kûng Thai-ho̍k tén. Hàn-yû hí-tô chhùng-yeu fò chho̍k-miàng ke Pok-vu̍t kwón, yì Âi-khi̍p Pok-vu̍t kwón[9]Antonelliana chiâm thap.

Torino chên-kîn he Êu-chû chhùng-yeu ke chṳn-chhṳ chûng-sîm. 1563-ngièn, kì sṳ̀n-vì-liáu Savoia Kûng-koet ke sú-tû, sùi-heu he Savoia vòng sṳt thúng-chhṳ hâ ke Sardegna Vòng-koet ke sú-tû, chui-heu he Yi-thai-li thúng-yit chṳ̂-heu ke thi-yit-ke sú-tû (1861-ngièn —1865-ngièn). [10] thùng-sṳ̀, kì ya-he Savoia vòng sṳt (Yi-thai-li vòng sṳt) ke ku hiông. [11] sûi-yèn yîn-vì thi-ngi-chhṳ sṳ-kie thai-chan, kì ke thai phu-fûn chṳn-chhṳ yi-ngi fò chhùng-yeu sin tû tiû sṳt liáu, kì hàn-he chhai chan-heu sṳ̀n-vì-liáu Êu-chû chhùng-yeu ke kûng-ngia̍p, sông-ngia̍p fò mo-yi ke si̍p san thi. Kì hien-chhai he Yi-thai-li ke kûng-ngia̍p chûng-sîm chṳ̂-yit, fò Milano, Genova chû-sṳ̀n liáu " kûng-ngia̍p thiet sâm-kok ". Chhiùng kîn-chi sông lòi sot, tû lìn kín sùi Lò-mâ fò Milano chṳ̂-heu, he Yi-thai-li thi-sâm-thai sàng-sṳ. [12] kì ke GDP kô-tha̍t 580 yi Mî-ngièn, phài-miàng sṳ-kie thi 78 vi. [13] sûi-yèn put chhiong Lò-mâ, mí làn nâ ngióng he “sṳ-kie kip sàng-sṳ”, GaWC phìn khì vì “ sṳt ha̍p fat-chán ” kip phe̍t. [14]

Tû-lìn he Yi-thai-li khì chhâ chṳ-chho ngia̍p ke yèu làm, pûn chhṳ̂n-vì “ Yi-thai-li khì chhâ chṳ̂ tû ” fe̍t-chá " Yi-thai-li ke Detroit". He khì chhâ phín-phài Fiat, LanciaAlfa Romeo ke Chúng-phu só-chhai-thi. [15][16] Torino hàn yúng-yû chiuk-khiù ki lo̍k phuJuventusTorino, kí-phan ko 2006-ngièn Tûng-kui Olympic Yun-thûng-fi. Yit-sia Koet-chi khûng-kiên chhàm sat phi, yì fò hâi ho chiet tiám tshongColumbus sṳ̍t-ngiam tshong, ya-he chhai Torino chṳ-chho ke.

Li̍t-sṳ́[phiên-siá | 編寫原始碼]

Thi-lî[phiên-siá | 編寫原始碼]

Vùn-fa[phiên-siá | 編寫原始碼]

Kau-yuk[phiên-siá | 編寫原始碼]

Kín-tiám[phiên-siá | 編寫原始碼]

Turin.jpg

Kîn-chi[phiên-siá | 編寫原始碼]

Ngìn-khiéu[phiên-siá | 編寫原始碼]

Hàng-chṳn[phiên-siá | 編寫原始碼]

Sa-fi[phiên-siá | 編寫原始碼]

Kâu-thûng[phiên-siá | 編寫原始碼]

  1. Dati ISTAT 2009.Demo.Istat.It
  2. Urban Audit 2004.Urbanaudit.Org
  3. OECD. "Competitive Cities in the Global Economy, p. 41" (PDF). 
  4. CENSIS. "Rapporto annuale 2008, p. 22". 
  5. From Ancient Art to Modern Technology in Turin.Initaly.Com
  6. Turin today.Discoveritalia.Com
  7. Cavour, Count Camillo Benso di (1810-1861).Ohio.Edu
  8. Turin - Architecture and Art, Chocolate and Caffes.Anne Robichaud
  9. Egyptian Museum of Turin.Italiantourism.Com
  10. "The city's history". Turismo e promozione. Città di Torino. 
  11. Turin - Culture & History.Smh.Com.Au
  12. Censis. ""La ricchezza del territorio italiano", Tab. 1". 
  13. The 150 richest cities in the world by GDP in 2005.Citymayors.Com
  14. The World According to GaWC 2008.GaWC
  15. Vera Zamagni (1998). The economic history of Italy, 1860-1990. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198292899, 9780198292890 Check |isbn= value (help). 
  16. Turin.Britannica.Com