Germanium

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Germanium,  32Ge
ngoi-kôn
grayish-white
Grayish lustrous block with uneven cleaved surface
A 12 gram (2×3 cm) polycrystalline block of germanium with uneven cleaved surfaces
Kî-pún sin-sit
Miàng, fù-ho germanium, Ge
ngoi-hìn grayish-white
Germanium chhai chû-khì-péu ke vi-chi
Khiâng (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Hoi (hî-yù hi-thí)
Lithium (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Beryllium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Phìn (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Than (tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Tham (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Yông (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Fuk (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Nái (hî-yù hi-thí)
Na̍p (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Magnesium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Lî (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Si̍t (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Lìn (tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Liù-vòng (tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Liu̍k (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Argon (hî-yù hi-thí)
Kap (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Koi (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Scandium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Titanium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Vanadium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Chromium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Manganese (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Thiet (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Cobalt (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Nickel (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Thùng (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Â-yèn (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Gallium (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Germanium (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Phî (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Selenium (tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Chhiu (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Krypton (hî-yù hi-thí)
Rubidium (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Strontium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Yttrium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Zirconium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Niobium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Molybdenum (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Technetium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Ruthenium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Rhodium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Palladium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Ngiùn (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Cadmium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Indium (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Siak (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Antimony (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Tellurium (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Tién (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Xenon (hî-yù hi-thí)
Caesium (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Barium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Lanthanum (lanthanum-hi)
Cerium (lanthanum-hi)
Praseodymium (lanthanum-hi)
Neodymium (lanthanum-hi)
Promethium (lanthanum-hi)
Samarium (lanthanum-hi)
Europium (lanthanum-hi)
Gadolinium (lanthanum-hi)
Terbium (lanthanum-hi)
Dysprosium (lanthanum-hi)
Holmium (lanthanum-hi)
Erbium (lanthanum-hi)
Thulium (lanthanum-hi)
Ytterbium (lanthanum-hi)
Lutetium (lanthanum-hi)
Hafnium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Tantalum (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Tungsten (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Rhenium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Osmium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Iridium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Pha̍k-kîm (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Kîm (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Súi-ngiùn (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Thallium (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Yèn (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Bismuth (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Polonium (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Astatine (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Radon (hî-yù hi-thí)
Francium (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Radium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Actinium (actinium-hi)
Thorium (actinium-hi)
Protactinium (actinium-hi)
Uranium (actinium-hi)
Neptunium (actinium-hi)
Plutonium (actinium-hi)
Americium (actinium-hi)
Curium (actinium-hi)
Berkelium (actinium-hi)
Californium (actinium-hi)
Einsteinium (actinium-hi)
Fermium (actinium-hi)
Mendelevium (actinium-hi)
Nobelium (actinium-hi)
Lawrencium (actinium-hi)
Rutherfordium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Dubnium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Seaborgium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Bohrium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Hassium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumphî
ngièn-chṳ́ sì-sú 32
ngièn-chṳ́-liòng (±) 72.630(8)[1]
ngièn-su lui-phe̍t   lui-kîm-su̍k
Chhu̍k, fûn-khî 14 chhu̍k, p-block
chû-khì period 4
thien-chṳ́ phài-lie̍t [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
per shell 2, 8, 18, 4
vu̍t-lî sin-chṳt
Siông ku-thí
yùng-tiám 1211.40 K ​(938.25 °C, ​1720.85 °F)
pui-tiám 3106 K ​(2833 °C, ​5131 °F)
Me̍t-thu near Sit-vûn 5.323 g·cm−3
5.60 g·cm−3
Yùng-fa-ngie̍t 36.94 kJ·mol−1
Chîn-fat-ngie̍t 334 kJ·mol−1
Ngie̍t-yùng-liong 23.222 J·mol−1·K−1
chîn-hi-ap
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
chhai T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Ngièn-chṳ́ sin-chṳt
Yông-fa-su 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1, −2, −3, −4 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Thien-fu-sin Pauling scale: 2.01
Thien-lì-nèn 1st: 762 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1537.5 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3302.1 kJ·mol−1
Ngièn-chṳ́ pan-kang empirical: 122 pm
Khiung-ka pan-kang 122 pm
Van der Waals pan-kang 211 pm
Miscellanea
Chîn-thí keu-chhodiamond cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for germanium
Sâng-suk thin rod 5400 m·s−1 (at 20 °C)
Ngie̍t-phàng-chong 6.0 µm·m−1·K−1
Ngie̍t-chhòn-thô-li̍t 60.2 W·m−1·K−1
Thien-chú-li̍t 1 Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Nèn-phung 0.67 eV (at 300 K)
Chhṳ̀-sin diamagnetic[2]
Young's modulus 103 GPa[3]
Shear modulus 41 GPa[3]
Bulk modulus 75 GPa[3]
Poisson ratio 0.26[3]
Mohs hardness 6.0
CAS Registry Number 7440-56-4
Le̍k-sú
Hí-miàng after Germany, homeland of the discoverer
Yi-chhet Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Fat-hien Clemens Winkler (1886)
Chui vún-thin ke thùng-vi-su
Chú vùn-chông: germanium ke thùng-vi-su
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% 70Ge is stable with 38 neutrons
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% 72Ge is stable with 40 neutrons
73Ge 7.73% 73Ge is stable with 41 neutrons
74Ge 35.94% 74Ge is stable with 42 neutrons
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y ββ 2.039 76Se

Germanium he yit-chúng fa-ho̍k ngièn-su, fa-ho̍k fù-ho vì Ge, ngièn-chṳ́ su-muk he 32.

  1. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Properties of Germanium". Ioffe Institute.