Than

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Than,  6C
ngoi-kôn
graphite: black
diamond: clear

Graphite (left) and diamond (right), the two most well-known allotropes of carbon

Spectral lines of carbon
Kî-pún sin-sit
Miàng, fù-ho Than, C
Yîn-ngî carbon
thùng-su-thí graphite, diamond
ngoi-hìn graphite: black
diamond: clear
Than chhai chû-khì-péu ke vi-chi
Khiâng (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Hoi (hî-yù hi-thí)
Lithium (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Beryllium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Phìn (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Than (tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Tham (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Yông (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Fuk (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Nái (hî-yù hi-thí)
Na̍p (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Magnesium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Lî (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Si̍t (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Lìn (tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Liù-vòng (tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Liu̍k (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Argon (hî-yù hi-thí)
Kap (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Koi (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Scandium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Titanium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Vanadium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Chromium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Manganese (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Thiet (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Cobalt (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Nickel (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Thùng (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Â-yèn (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Gallium (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Germanium (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Phî (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Selenium (tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Chhiu (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Krypton (hî-yù hi-thí)
Rubidium (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Strontium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Yttrium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Zirconium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Niobium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Molybdenum (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Technetium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Ruthenium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Rhodium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Palladium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Ngiùn (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Cadmium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Indium (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Siak (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Antimony (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Tellurium (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Tién (sûng-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k)
Xenon (hî-yù hi-thí)
Caesium (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Barium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Lanthanum (lanthanum-hi)
Cerium (lanthanum-hi)
Praseodymium (lanthanum-hi)
Neodymium (lanthanum-hi)
Promethium (lanthanum-hi)
Samarium (lanthanum-hi)
Europium (lanthanum-hi)
Gadolinium (lanthanum-hi)
Terbium (lanthanum-hi)
Dysprosium (lanthanum-hi)
Holmium (lanthanum-hi)
Erbium (lanthanum-hi)
Thulium (lanthanum-hi)
Ytterbium (lanthanum-hi)
Lutetium (lanthanum-hi)
Hafnium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Tantalum (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Tungsten (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Rhenium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Osmium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Iridium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Pha̍k-kîm (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Kîm (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Súi-ngiùn (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Thallium (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Yèn (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Bismuth (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Polonium (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Astatine (lui-kîm-su̍k)
Radon (hî-yù hi-thí)
Francium (kán-kîm-su̍k)
Radium (kán-thú kîm-su̍k)
Actinium (actinium-hi)
Thorium (actinium-hi)
Protactinium (actinium-hi)
Uranium (actinium-hi)
Neptunium (actinium-hi)
Plutonium (actinium-hi)
Americium (actinium-hi)
Curium (actinium-hi)
Berkelium (actinium-hi)
Californium (actinium-hi)
Einsteinium (actinium-hi)
Fermium (actinium-hi)
Mendelevium (actinium-hi)
Nobelium (actinium-hi)
Lawrencium (actinium-hi)
Rutherfordium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Dubnium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Seaborgium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Bohrium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Hassium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (heu-ko-thu kîm-su̍k)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


C

Si
phìnThanTham
ngièn-chṳ́ sì-sú 6
ngièn-chṳ́-liòng 12.011[1] (12.0096–12.0116)[2]
ngièn-su lui-phe̍t   tô-ngièn-chṳ́ fî-kîm-su̍k, sometimes considered a metalloid
Chhu̍k, fûn-khî 14 chhu̍k, p-block
chû-khì period 2
thien-chṳ́ phài-lie̍t [He] 2s2 2p2
per shell 2, 4
vu̍t-lî sin-chṳt
Siông ku-thí
Sublimation point 3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Me̍t-thu near Sit-vûn amorphous: 1.8–2.1 g·cm−3[3]
graphite: 2.267 g·cm−3
diamond: 3.515 g·cm−3
Sâm-siong-tiám 4600 K, ​10,800 kPa[4][5]
Yùng-fa-ngie̍t graphite: 117 kJ·mol−1
Ngie̍t-yùng-liong graphite: 8.517 J·mol−1·K−1
diamond: 6.155 J·mol−1·K−1
Ngièn-chṳ́ sin-chṳt
Yông-fa-su +4, +3,[6] +2, +1,[7] 0, −1, −2, −3, −4[8] ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Thien-fu-sin Pauling scale: 2.55
Thien-lì-nèn 1st: 1086.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2352.6 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4620.5 kJ·mol−1
(more)
Khiung-ka pan-kang sp3: 77 pm
sp2: 73 pm
sp: 69 pm
Van der Waals pan-kang 170 pm
Miscellanea
Chîn-thí keu-chho graphite: ​simple hexagonal
Simple hexagonal crystal structure for graphite: Than

(black)
Chîn-thí keu-chhodiamond cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for Than
Sâng-suk thin rod diamond: 18,350 m·s−1 (at 20 °C)
Ngie̍t-phàng-chong diamond: 0.8 µm·m−1·K−1 (at 25 °C)[9]
Ngie̍t-chhòn-thô-li̍t graphite: 119–165 W·m−1·K−1
diamond: 900–2300 W·m−1·K−1
Thien-chú-li̍t graphite: 7.837 µΩ·m[10]
Chhṳ̀-sin diamagnetic[11]
Young's modulus diamond: 1050 GPa[9]
Shear modulus diamond: 478 GPa[9]
Bulk modulus diamond: 442 GPa[9]
Poisson ratio diamond: 0.1[9]
Mohs hardness graphite: 1–2
diamond: 10
CAS Registry Number 7440-44-0
Le̍k-sú
Fat-hien Egyptians and Sumerians[12] (3750 BCE)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier[13] (1789)
Chui vún-thin ke thùng-vi-su
Chú vùn-chông: Than ke thùng-vi-su
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
11C syn 20 min β+ 0.96 11B
12C 98.9% 12C is stable with 6 neutrons
13C 1.1% 13C is stable with 7 neutrons
14C trace 5730 y β 0.156 14N

Than (碳), fe̍t-chá ham-cho than-su (炭素), he yit-chúng fa-ho̍k ngièn-su, fa-ho̍k fù-ho vì C, ngièn-chṳ́ su-muk he 6, chhai ngièn-su chû-khì-péu chûng thi-liuk vi.

  1. Conventional Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  2. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  3. Lide, D. R., pian. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th pán.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  4. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5. 
  5. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  6. 模板:Citeweb
  7. 模板:Citeweb
  8. 模板:Citeweb
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  10. https://www.nde-ed.org/GeneralResources/MaterialProperties/ET/ET_matlprop_Misc_Matls.htm
  11. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  12. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. 2008-09-12 chhà-khon. 
  13. Senese, Fred (2000-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. 2007-11-24 chhà-khon.